In vivo Reflectance Confocal Microscopy
In order to define a glossary of descriptors in melanocytic tumors, a list of parameters has been elaborated based on a critical review of the scientific literature. Independent investigators are invited to: 1) visualize the on-line tutorial describing the parameters, 2) evaluate a set of training images with real time feedback, and 3) access the evaluation area with the actual study images.
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Healthy Skin

  1. Veiro JA, Cummins PG. Imaging of skin epidermis from various origins using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Dermatology 1994;189:16-22.
  2. Rajadhyaksha M, Gonzalez S, Zavislan JM, Anderson RR, Webb RH. In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology. J Invest Dermatol 1999;113:293-303.
  3. Huzaira M, Rius F, Rajadhyaksha M, Anderson RR, Gonzalez S. Topographic variations in normal skin, as viewed by in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy. J Invest Dermatol 2001;116:864 -852.
  4. Sauermann K, Clemann S, Jaspers S, Gambichler T, Altmeyer P, Hoffmann K, Ennen J. Age related changes of human skin investigated with histometric measurements by confocal laser scanning microscopy in vivo. Skin Res Technol 2002;8:52-56.
  5. Swindle LD, Thomas SG, Freeman M, Delaney PM. View of normal human skin in vivo as observed using fluorescent fiber-optic confocal microscopic imaging. J Invest Dermatol 2003;121:706-712.
  6. Gambichler T, Sauermann K, Altintas MA, Paech V, Kreuter A, Altmeyer P, Hoffmann K. Effects of repeated sunbed exposures on the human skin. In vivo measurements with confocal microscopy. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2004;20:27-32.
  7. Nouveau-Richard S, Monot M, Bastien P, de Lacharriére O. In vivo epidermal thickness measurement: ultrasound vs. confocal imaging. Skin Res Technol 2004;10:136-140.

Inflammatory and infective skin diseases

  1. Gonzalez S, Rajadhyaksha M, Rubinstein G, Anderson RR. Characterization of psoriasis in vivo by reflectance confocal microscopy. J Med 1999;30:337-356.
  2. Gonzalez S, Gonzalez E, White WM, Rajadhyaksha M, Anderson RR. Allergic contact dermatitis: correlation of in vivo confocal imaging to routine histology. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999;40:708-713.
  3. Gonzalez S, Rubinstein G, Mordovtseva V, Rajadhyaksha M, Anderson RR. In vivo abnormal keratinization in Darier-white's disease as viewed by real-time confocal imaging. J Cutan Pathol 1999;26:504-508.
  4. Gonzalez S, Rajadhyaksha M, Gonzalez-Serva A, White WM, Anderson RR. Confocal reflectance imaging of folliculitis in vivo: correlation with routine histology. J Cutan Pathol 1999;26:201-205.
  5. Hongcharu W, Dwyer P, Gonzalez S, Anderson RR. Confirmation of onychomycosis by in vivo confocal microscopy. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000;42:214-216.
  6. Markus R, Huzaira M, Anderson RR, Gonzalez S. A better potassium hydroxide preparation? In vivo diagnosis of tinea with confocal microscopy. Arch Dermatol 2001;137:1076-1078.
  7. Hicks SP, Swindells KJ, Middelkamp-Hup MA, Sifakis MA, Gonzalez E, Gonzalez S. Confocal histopathology of irritant contact dermatitis in vivo and the impact of skin color (black vs white). J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48:727-734.
  8. Curiel-Lewandrowski C, Williams CM, Swindells KJ, Tahan SR, Astner S, Frankenthaler RA, Gonzalez S. Use of in vivo confocal microscopy in malignant melanoma: an aid in diagnosis and assessment of surgical and nonsurgical therapeutic approaches. Arch Dermatol. 2004;140:1127-1132.
  9. Swindells K, Burnett N, Rius-Diaz F, Gonzalez E, Mihm MC, Gonzalez S. Reflectance confocal microscopy may differentiate acute allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in vivo. J Am Acad Dermatol 2004;50:220-228.
  10. Longo C, Bassoli S, Monari P, Seidenari S, Pellacani G. Reflectance-mode confocal microscopy for the in vivo detection of sarcoptes scabiei. Arch Dermatol 2005;141:1336.
  11. Astner S, Gonzalez E, Cheung A, Rius-Diaz F, Gonzalez S. Pilot study on the sensitivity and specificity of in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005;53:986-992.
  12. Astner S, Gonzalez E, Cheung AC, Rius-Diaz F, Doukas AG, William F, Gonzalez S. Non-invasive evaluation of the kinetics of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;124:351-359.
  13. Astner S, Burnett N, Rius-Diaz F, Doukas AG, Gonzalez S, Gonzalez E. Irritant contact dermatitis induced by a common household irritant: a noninvasive evaluation of ethnic variability in skin response. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;54:458-465.

Neoplastic diseases

Basal cell carcinoma

  1. Gonzalez S. Real-time evidence of in vivo leukocyte trafficking in human skin by reflectance confocal microscopy. J Invest Dermatol 2001;117:384.
  2. Gonzalez S, Tannous Z. Real time, in vivo confocal reflectance microscopy of basal cell carcinoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002;47:869-874.
  3. Sauermann K, Gambichler T, Wilmert M, Rotterdam S, Stucker M, Altmeyer P, Hoffmann K. Investigation of basal cell carcinoma by confocal laser scanning microscopy in vivo. Skin Res Technol 2002;8:141-147.
  4. Charles CA, Marghoob AA, Busam KJ, Clark-Loeser L, Halpern AC. Melanoma or pigmented basal cell carcinoma: a clinical-pathologic correlation with dermoscopy, in vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy, and routine histology. Skin Res Technol 2002;8:282-287.
  5. Goldgeier M, Fox CA, Zavislan JM, Harris D, Gonzalez S. Noninvasive imaging, treatment, and microscopic confirmation of clearance of basal cell carcinoma. Dermatol Surg 2003;29:205-210.
  6. Tannous Z, Torres A, Gonzalez S. In vivo real-time confocal reflectance microscopy: a noninvasive guide for Mohs micrographic surgery facilitated by aluminum chloride, an excellent contrast enhancer. Dermatol Surg 2003;29:839-846.
  7. Torres A, Niemeyer A, Berkes B, Marra D, Schanbacher C, Gonzalez S, Owens M, Morgan B. 5% imiquimod cream and reflectance-mode confocal microscopy as adjunct modalities to Mohs micrographic surgery for treatment of basal cell carcinoma. Dermatol Surg 2004;30:1462-1469.
  8. Nori S, Rius-Diaz F, Cuevas J, Goldgeier M, Jaen P, Torres A, Gonzalez S. Sensitivity and specificity of reflectance-mode confocal microscopy for in vivo diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma: A multicenter study. J Am Acad Dermatol 2004;51:923-930.
  9. Marra DE, Torres A, Schanbacher CF, Gonzalez S. Detection of residual basal cell carcinoma by in vivo confocal microscopy. Dermatol Surg. 2005;31:538-541.
  10. Gerger A, Horn M, Koller S, Weger W, Massone C, Leinweber B, Kerl H, Smolle J. Confocal examination of untreated fresh specimens from basal cell carcinoma: implications for microscopically guided surgery. Arch Dermatol. 2005;141:1269-1274.
  11. Agero AL, Busam KJ, Benvenuto-Andrade C, Scope A, Gill M, Marghoob AA, Gonzalez S, Halpern AC. Reflectance confocal microscopy of pigmented basal cell carcinoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;54:638-643.

Other skin benign neoplasms

  1. Aghassi D, Anderson RR, Gonzalez S. Confocal laser microscopic imaging of actinic keratoses in vivo: a preliminary report. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000;43:42-48.
  2. Aghassi D, Gonzalez E, Anderson RR, Rajadhyaksha M, Gonzalez S. Elucidating the pulsed-dye laser treatment of sebaceous hyperplasia in vivo with real time confocal scanning laser microscopy. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000;43:49-53.
  3. Aghassi D, Anderson RR, Gonzalez S. Time-sequence histologic imaging of laser-trated cherry angiomas with in vivo confocal microscopy. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000; 43:37-41.
  4. Tachihara R, Choi C, Langley RG, Anderson RR. Gonzalez S. In vivo confocal imaginig of pigmented eccrine poroma. Dermatology 2002;204:185-189.

Melanocytic lesions and melanoma

  1. Busam KJ, Charles C, Lee G, Halpern AC. Morphologic features of melanocytes, pigmented keratinocytes, and melanophages by in vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy. Mod Pathol. 2001;14:862-868.
  2. Busam KJ, Hester K, Charles C, Sachs DL, Antonescu CR, Gonzalez S, Halpern AC. Detection of clinically amelanotic malignant melanoma and assessment of its margins by in vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy. Arch Dermatol. 2001;137:923-929.
  3. Langley RG, Burton E, Walsh N, Propperova I, Murray SJ. In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of benign lentigines: comparison to conventional histology and in vivo characteristics of lentigo maligna. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;55:88-97.
  4. Busam KJ, Charles C, Lohmann CM, Marghoob A, Goldgeier M, Halpern AC. Detection of intraepidermal malignant melanoma in vivo by confocal scanning laser microscopy. Melanoma Res. 2002;12:349-355.
  5. Tannous ZS, Mihm MC, Flotte TJ, Gonzalez S. In vivo examination of lentigo maligna and malignant melanoma in situ, lentigo maligna type by near-infrared reflectance confocal microscopy: comparison of in vivo confocal images with histologic sections. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002;46:260-263.
  6. Pellacani G, Cesinaro AM, Grana C, Seidenari S. In-vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of pigmented Spitz nevi. Comparison of in-vivo confocal images with dermoscopy and routine histopathology. J Am Acad Dermatol 2004;51:371-376.
  7. Chen CS, Elias M, Busam K, Rajadhyaksha M, Marghoob AA. Multimodal in vivo optical imaging, including confocal microscopy, facilitates presurgical margin mapping for clinically complex lentigo maligna melanoma. Br J Dermatol. 2005;153:1031-1036.
  8. Gerger A, Koller S, Kern T, Massone C, Steiger K, Richtig E, Kerl H, Smolle J. Diagnostic applicability of in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy in melanocytic skin tumors. J Invest Dermatol 2005;124:493-498.
  9. Pellacani G, Cesinaro AM, Longo C, Grana C, Seidenari S. Microscopic in vivo description of cellular architecture of dermoscopic pigment network in nevi and melanomas. Arch Dermatol 2005;141:147-154.
  10. Pellacani G, Cesinaro AM, Seidenari S. In vivo confocal reflectance microscopy for the characterization of melanocytic nests and correlation with dermoscopy and histology. Br J Dermatol 2005;152:384-386.
  11. Pellacani G, Cesinaro AM, Seidenari S. In vivo assessment of melanocytic nests in nevi and melanomas by reflectance confocal microscopy. Mod Pathol 2005;18:469-474.
  12. Pellacani G, Cesinaro AM, Seidenari S. Reflectance-mode confocal microscopy for the in vivo characterization of pagetoid melanocytosis in melanomas and nevi. J Invest Dermatol 2005:125:532-537.
  13. Marghoob AA, Charles CA, Busam KJ, Rajadhyaksha M, Lee G, Clark-Loeser L, Halpern AC. In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of a series of congenital melanocytic nevi suggestive of having developed malignant melanoma. Arch Dermatol. 2005;141:1401-1412
  14. Pellacani G, Cesinaro AM, Seidenari S. Reflectance-mode confocal microscopy of pigmented skin lesions – Improvement in melanoma diagnostic specificity. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005;53:979-85
  15. Gerger A, Koller S, Weger W, Richtig E, Kerl H, Samonigg H, Krippl P, Smolle J. Sensitivity and specificity of confocal laser-scanning microscopy for in vivo diagnosis of malignant skin tumors. Cancer. 2006;107:193-200
  16. Menzies SW. Cutaneous melanoma: making a clinical diagnosis, present and future. Dermatol Ther. 2006;19:32-39
[Bibliography last update: august 2006]
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